Diesel Engine Cycle
The term “compression ignition” is typically used in technical literature to describe the modern engines commonly called “Diesel engines”. This is in contrast to “spark ignition” for the typical automobile gasoline engines that operate on a cycle derived from the Otto cycle. Rudolph Diesel patented the compression-ignition cycle which bears his name in the 1890s. The diesel internal combustion engine differs from the gasoline powered Otto cycle by using a higher compression of the fuel to ignite the fuel rather than using a spark plug (“compression ignition” rather than “spark ignition”).
In the diesel engine, air is compressed adiabatically with a compression ratio typically between 15 and 20. This compression raises the temperature to the ignition temperature of the fuel mixture which is formed by injecting fuel once the air is compressed. The ideal air-standard cycle is modeled as a reversible adiabatic compression followed by a constant pressure combustion process, then an adiabatic expansion as a power stroke and an isovolumetric exhaust. A new air charge is taken in at the end of the exhaust, as indicated by the processes a-e-a on the diagram. Since the compression and power strokes of this idealized cycle are adiabatic, the efficiency can be calculated from the constant pressure and constant volume processes. The input and output energies and the efficiency can be calculated from the temperatures and specific heats.
Diesel engines are more powerful and fuel-efficient than similar-sized gasoline engines (about 30-35% more fuel efficient). Today’s diesel vehicles are much improved over diesels of the past.